Earth’s basic air envelope; 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 0.3% carbon dioxide and several other traces of elemental
and molecular gasses.
Concentrations of these gases within water is a whole different story. Concentrations are much smaller
Measured in mg/l (milligrams per liter) or somewhat equivalently in ppm.
Typical pond @ 70 degrees F. will have concentrations of about 13 mg/l nitrogen, 9mg/l oxygen, and 35 mg/l carbon dioxide
As air components dissolve into the water, a point is reached that is called saturation. Saturation is different for each
of the gases.
Temperature is the most important factor.
Water temperatures increase, water cannot hold as much of each type of gas
Example for oxygen:
At 50 degrees F – oxygen is 11.5 mg/l
At 70 degrees F – oxygen is 9.0 mg/l
At 90 degrees F – oxygen is 7.5 mg/l
Impurities, altitude will decrease saturation levels